Gene therapy uses molecular biology techniques and appropriate viruses as carriers to implant normal gene sequences into human retinal photoreceptor nerve cells and transcribe the correct protein fragments. The goal is to improve the physiological abnormalities caused by the original gene defects or abnormalities in the body in order to improve physiological performance, treat diseases, or reduce the rate of deterioration. At present, there are specific gene therapy R&D progresses made for gene therapy.
Cell therapy is currently the main R&D direction for retinal degeneration. The goal is to use injection or micro-transplantation to transfer autologous or allogeneic stem cells and the differentiated cells derived into the retinal tissue to promote internal cell growth that can replace or repair damaged tissues in the body and achieve disease improvement.
The retinal artificial chip manufactured using bionic technology is primarily developed to transmit light stimulation through the crystal to the omentum tissue of the blind patient whose photoreceptor cells have been damaged, and then transmit the signals to the brain via the optic nerve. Earlier studies have confirmed that some light perception can be restored for patients who are completely blind. There are different surgical implant methods such as “upper retina implantation” and “lower retina implantation” depending on the chip design.